Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world, making it a good starting material to know it. The construction industry uses a variety of building materials for different aspects of building a house. Architects consult with structural engineers about the load capacities of the materials they design with, and the most common materials are concrete, steel, wood, masonry and stone. Each has a different strength, weight and durability, making it suitable for various uses.
There are national standards and test methods that govern the use of building materials in the construction industry, so they can be relied on to provide structural integrity. Architects also choose materials based on cost and aesthetics. Chrome, gold and silver are generally used for finishing or decoration because they lack the tensile strength of steel. Concrete is a composite material made of fine and coarse-grained aggregates (think gravel, crushed stone, recycled concrete, and geosynthetic aggregates) held together by a liquid binder, such as cement, that hardens or cures over time.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement, and is a fine powder, which is produced by heating limestone and clay materials in a kiln and adding gypsum. Therefore, Portland cement concrete consists of the mineral aggregate, bonded with Portland cement and water. After mixing, the cement hardens or cures into the stone material that we consider concrete. Among the oldest, or perhaps the oldest, building materials, wood has been used for thousands of years and has properties that make it an ideal building material even in the days of synthetic and engineering materials.
For construction use, wood parts are machine planed and cut into standard dimensions, such as 2 x4 (1.5 x 3.5 reais) and 2 x 6, (1.5 x 5.5 reais) so that their measurements can be accurately factored into construction drawings, known as dimensional wood. Wood in larger sizes is generally known as timber or beams and is often used to construct the frames of large structures, such as bridges and multi-story buildings. Some tree species are better for some uses and for use in some climates than in others. Structural engineers and architects can determine what type of wood is ideal for a construction project.
The choice of construction materials is one of the myriad aspects of a construction project. Learn more about the properties of wood materials used in construction in MT Copeland's online wood materials class, taught by professional builder and craftsman Jordan Smith. Jordan Smith is the CEO and founder of Smith House Company, a design and construction company based in Austin, Texas. He learned to build and weld while working on the farm with his grandfather, and after earning a degree in Welding and Materials Engineering, he spent the next 10 years working in heavy construction, building everything from robots to ships and offshore oil platforms before moving to residential construction.
After spending a couple of years working with industry-leading builders in Austin, Jordan and his wife Veronica set out on their own to form Smith House Co. Strives to build more beautiful, functional and resilient spaces that are self-sufficient and in harmony with their natural environment. Concrete is one of the most common building materials. It is a material composed of fine and coarse-grained aggregates mixed with a binder such as cement and water.
The mixture is then allowed to cure and hardens over time. Concrete takes seven days to cure and an average of 28 days to reach maximum strength. Reinforced concrete is more common in construction, so steel is embedded in concrete to increase structural tensile strength. Concrete comes in many forms, with examples such as lightweight concrete and waterproof concrete.
The type of project dictates the type of concrete used. One of the most important advantages of concrete is that it can be poured into any shape and hardened in a stone-like material. Skyscraper construction exploded from our discovery of steel as a reinforcing material. Steel is a composite material made of alloys of iron and carbon.
Steel has high strength and functionality. It's also lightweight, easy to use, and cheaper to ship than other construction materials. Steel doesn't deform easily unless we place an enormous amount of weight on it, and it retains its structural properties even when bent. Due to its structural stability, we use steel to make structural frames of modern and high-rise buildings.
Steel has distinctive qualities, such as a high strength-to-weight ratio. Its installation requires less time than concrete and we can install it in any environment. However, if not properly installed, steel is susceptible to corrosion. One of the significant drawbacks of steel as a construction material is that it is likely to break during high temperature levels.
Its fire resistance level depends on the type of steel. It could be said that wood is the oldest building material, since it has been used. It's naturally available and cost-effective, strong and durable, and flexible in every way. Can be bent, molded or cured into desired shapes.
In addition to its durability, wood is an environmentally sustainable material. We can use wood for commercial and residential buildings, and it works well with other materials. Functionally works well with steel, marble and aluminum. Compared to other building materials, wood is relatively light and easy to standardize in size.
It has a high tensile strength and is good at soundproofing and insulation. Stone is the most durable building material. The oldest buildings in the world are made of stone. We commonly use stone for walls and floors, and the texture makes it versatile.
The stone comes with textures from smooth to rough finish and also comes in many different colors. Examples of stones used in construction are sandstone, granite and marble. Ordinary stone is cheap, but prices go up for unique finishes. For marble countertops, quality and color increase production time and cost.
Its density affects its workability due to its weight, making it difficult to move. Stone is also a terrible insulator, therefore ineffective for insulation in cold environments. Masonry uses bricks, which are rectangular blocks, and then they are joined together with mortar. Bricks were traditionally made of dry, heated clay.
They have a high compressive strength, but can break easily. The most important bricks that exist now are steel-reinforced concrete blocks. Due to its high compressive strength, we use it to build load-bearing walls. Masonry can withstand multi-storey buildings when reinforced with concrete, providing an economical construction option.
It is fire resistant and does not rot, so it lasts a long time. The most commonly used metal in construction is steel; however, other metals such as aluminum. Copper, iron and steel are also used for different aspects of construction. While there is no big bad wolf coming to tear down your home or business, it's true that some building materials are better suited to your project than others.
Today, most structures are made of wood, steel, concrete or masonry. Each material has its own strengths and weaknesses that need to be considered. Humans have used wood for thousands of years to build shelters and structures. Despite centuries of technological advancements and the invention of many synthetic materials, wood remains a popular choice for construction projects.
Wood's popularity stems from its relative affordability. It is also lightweight and can be easily worked with. Acts as an insulator, keeping warm air in and cool air out. And while it may seem that cutting down trees to build a building is harmful to the environment, wood can be an environmentally friendly option if purchased from a responsible wood supplier committed to sustainable forestry.
Wood also has a lower carbon footprint than other materials, as it uses less water and energy to produce. However, wood has some drawbacks. It's not always ideal for supporting a lot of weight, which means wood isn't the best choice for buildings with lots of floors. And, unlike some synthetic materials, wood lasts “only a few hundred years” before it finally breaks down.
It is also susceptible to fire and moisture damage and can be the victim of destructive termites. In an effort to address some of the shortcomings of traditional wood, manufacturers have developed several engineered wood products. These are building materials manufactured by joining wood particles, fibers, shavings, or veneers to form a composite material. Designed and manufactured to exact specifications, these composites can often withstand loads large enough to replace steel and concrete in some structural applications.
They can also have moisture and fire resistant properties. However, it's important to note that these rugged manufactured materials may have a higher price compared to traditional wood. Steel is a popular material for construction because it is strong without being extremely heavy. This makes it the ideal material for large multi-storey buildings and industrial and manufacturing facilities.
Unlike wood, steel can withstand moisture and is not susceptible to termites or fire. It will also last much longer than wood. However, using steel to frame a building will be more expensive than wood. A good structural engineer will be able to save by using enough steel to build your building safely and maintain the previous load, while monitoring and limiting unnecessary expenses.
Therefore, while steel is an attractive alternative to wood because of its greater durability and longevity, it will be more expensive. That said, concrete requires a different skill set for installation compared to wood or metal. You'll want to make sure you work with an experienced and trusted concrete team to ensure that your structure is built correctly and can withstand the test of time. Compared to wood and metal, concrete can be more expensive to use for your structure.
However, its benefits can make it an attractive option. Concrete's durability and energy efficiency can cost building owners less in the long run to operate and maintain, making that higher upfront cost easier to swallow. Compared to wood, steel and concrete, masonry tends to be more expensive. Bricks require labor to convert raw materials into building materials, which must then be shipped and installed by craftsmen.
Concrete requires less manufacturing labor, although it still has a rather complicated installation process, whether the concrete is cast-in-place or prefabricated. Due to its affordability, durability and ease of use, brick remains one of the most popular and leading building materials. Exterior and interior walls, partitions, pillars, footings and other load-bearing constructions are constructed of clay bricks. A brick has a rectangular shape and is small enough to be handled with one hand.
Bricks can be produced with burnt clay, a combination of sand and lime, or Portland cement concrete. Clay bricks are often used because they are inexpensive and readily available. Quartz, felspar, mica, dolomite and other rock-forming minerals are examples. Granite, basalt, trap, marble, slate, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of rocks used to make building stones.
With the introduction of cement and steel, stone has lost its prominence as a building material. In addition, the strength of structural parts constructed of stone cannot be reasonably evaluated. Cement can be defined as an adhesive and cohesive material capable of binding particles of solid matter into a compact and hard mass. They are limited to limestone cements with lime compounds as their main components for civil engineering projects, with the main function of bonding fine (sand) and coarse-grained (grain) aggregate particles.
Hydraulic and non-hydraulic cements are two types of cement used in the construction industry. Non-hydraulic lime and other materials that are unstable in water, such as plaster of Paris, do not harden or harden in water. Hydraulic cement sets and hardens in water, resulting in a stable product. An example of this is Portland cement.
Today, cement is widely used in all types of construction projects, particularly in structures that require high strength, such as bridge pillars, lighthouses and tall towers, as well as in massive constructions such as bridges, silos and chimneys. Also in constructions that are subject to the effect of water, such as reservoirs, dams, dock yards, etc. Aggregates are the materials that are mainly used in the creation of mortar and concrete as a filler and binder. They are made of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, as well as blast furnace slag and other materials.
Aggregates make up the concrete body, prevent shrinkage and save costs. They occupy between 70 and 80% of the volume and have a significant impact on the qualities of concrete. As a result, obtaining the right type and quality of aggregates on site is critical. Initially, aggregates were thought to be chemically inert, but new research has revealed that some of them are chemically active and that certain types exhibit chemical bonds at the interface between aggregate and cement paste.
The use of water with cement is intended to cause hydration of cement. Excess water acts as a lubricant between coarse-grained and fine aggregates, resulting in viable and cost-effective concrete. When there is an excess of water, cement, together with water, rises to the surface by capillary action and produces a thin layer known as grout on the surface. This degrades the link between consecutive concrete lifts.
Excess water can seep through the formwork, resulting in foam concrete, which becomes porous as it dries. On the other hand, a lower amount of water makes it difficult to work with concrete, and the resulting concrete has poorer strength due to non-uniform mixing. Therefore, in order to manufacture concrete of the quality required for a construction site, the amount of water used must be restricted. Water is also used to cure and clean aggregates.
Lime was the main cementing material in building construction until Portland cement was invented. The use of Portland cement has almost outpaced the use of lime, but lime is still used in regions where it is available locally and during periods of shortage of Portland cement. Free lime in the free state is typically not found in nature. Calcium carbonate, which is obtained by calcining limestone, is the raw material used to make lime (CaO).
Tuff, limestone boulders and kankars are three types of limestone that are often used in construction. Calcination of husk, coral, chalk and other calcareous minerals can also provide lime. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the construction business. It is a man-made composite material.
It is composed of a balanced mixture of binding materials such as lime or cement, fine and coarse-grained aggregates, water and additives. Wet or green concrete is freshly mixed concrete that has not yet hardened, while set or hardened concrete is concrete that has already hardened. Limestone concrete was used to build most traditional constructions and historic buildings. Since the invention of cement, limestone concrete has been limited to its use as a base for concrete foundations and roof terraces.
Moldability, early hardening, high early compressive strength, development of desired qualities, suitability for gunting, pumpability and durability are key reasons for the widespread use of cement concrete. Ceramics can be used to make bricks, stones, concrete, glass, abrasives, porcelain, high-temperature refractories and other building materials. Paint is a type of surface coating that is applied in the form of a liquid. Dries to a thin film on the painted surface (60-150 µ).
Oil paints, water-based paints, cement paints, bituminous paints and special paints such as fire retardant paints, illuminating paints, chlorinated rubber paints, etc., are classified as paints. Because it is a major component of these two building materials, cement is an extremely important building material. It is used in the production of the many structures that make up the modern world, including buildings, bridges, ports, runways and roads. It is also used for facades and other decorative elements in buildings.
The constant demand for all these structures, increasingly from the developing world, means that cement is the second most consumed product in the world after water. Brick is one of the most popular building materials. Bricks have been used in building construction since time immemorial. It's not hard to understand why.
Brick buildings retain their value over time. Some of the most emblematic structures in the world, such as the Pantheon, the Taj Mahal and the Great Wall of China, are made of bricks. Regardless of your location, you will find a building materials store near you that sells bricks used in building construction. Brick is energy efficient, low maintenance and sustainable.
Previously, steel was generally used in industrial and commercial architecture. Thanks to the various benefits it offers, construction material is now widely used in residential construction. Renowned for superior durability, steel can last up to 75 years (and longer) with proper care and protection. Galvanized steel is easy to maintain.
Steel is cost-effective, sustainable and modifiable. For tens and thousands of years, the store has been the home of choice for many nomadic groups around the world. The best known of them are “Conical Tepee” and “Circular Yurt”. In history, cotton and hemp predominated as a fabric for construction and construction materials.
In addition, modern developments have appreciated the main construction techniques leading to traction architecture and synthetic fabrics. With respect to modern architecture, it has been greatly modified and the fabric structures are stronger and more reliable. Rubbers, plastics and resins used for construction are manufactured with polymeric materials. Polymers are high molecular weight macromolecules that have colloidal dimensions (10—3 to 10—6 mm in diameter).
Small molecules called monomers undergo a polymerization reaction and form macromolecules. Any material that is used for housing construction is known as building material. Cement, reinforced bars, sand, brick, aggregates, clay are the most common materials used in construction. The quality of the materials determines the strength and longevity of the building, therefore, it cannot be ignored or compromised.
Masonry construction uses individual units (such as bricks) to build structures that are usually joined by some type of mortar. Knowledge of many types of materials, their qualities and applications for various reasons provides a valuable tool in the hands of builders to achieve savings in material costs. In addition, concrete buildings are energy efficient, capable of passively transferring heat absorbed during the day and releasing it at night while it is colder. When you are in the market looking for a building material, it must be continually remembered that not all building materials are created equal.
One builds a house with straw, another with sticks, and another takes the time to build his own with bricks. The constant increase in environmental problems has opened new doors for the innovative and intelligent construction of building materials. Its prominent application can be found as covering a certain part of buildings or installing accessories. The first two houses fall easily to the big bad wolf, but the brick house stands firm, demonstrating the importance of hard work and choosing the right building material for your structure.
Masonry also offers construction solutions in a variety of materials, colors, sizes and shapes, giving you more creative control for your structure design. Whereas man-made building materials are those that are prepared synthetically or artificially to obtain desirable properties. So, let's take a look at some of the most important building materials used in today's construction industry. .